1 Intelligent Design

 

 

 

 

 

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“Consider the lilies of the field”

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

This world is full of treasures. They may be found both above the surface and below the surface. Unfortunately many people don’t look closely enough to see the treasures above the surface, let alone dig beneath the surface to find the treasures waiting there.

There are enough of these treasures available to the naked eye for us to be able to come to the conclusion that a power greater than ourselves made everything. Take a walk through the countryside and observe the plants and animals. Observe the complexity of a common flower. Could a human make it? Of course not! Jesus said,

“Consider the lilies of the field, how they grow; they toil not, neither do they spin and yet I say unto you that even Solomon in all his glory was not arrayed like one of these” (Matt. 6:28–29).

God’s creation will stand close examination. Take out a magnifying glass and look more closely. More wonders appear for us to behold. No matter how close we look at it, or how powerful the magnification, God’s handiwork will, unlike man’s, continue to disclose further wonders and it never ceases to amaze.

Evolutionists claim that flower-bearing plants developed from simple plants over millions of years of small changes. The same claim is made in the development of animals from simple to complex. When they are challenged to produce evidence from the environment or fossil record it is not forthcoming. Charles Darwin himself was perplexed that the fossil record did not support his theory:

“Why is not every geological formation and every stratum full of such intermediate links? Geology assuredly does not reveal any such finely-graduated organic chain; and this is the most obvious and serious objection which can be urged against the theory.”1 Further discoveries have confirmed his concern. There are no intermediate fossils, no matter how hard evolutionists try to pull the wool over our eyes. We are told that the small

changes from simple forms of life to complex forms are the result of mutations and natural selection. The truth is that the processes of mutation and natural selection will never give rise to new information in the genetic code of plants or animals. Mutations can only change existing information and are invariably harmful to a species, not helpful. Natural selection always results in loss of genetic information. Evolutionary scientists know this, yet persist with their theory of evolution. They

“believe a lie” (Rom. 1:25),

because the only alternative is creation. For them creation is not an option, because it would involve acknowledging a Creator and the obligations that go with knowing His will. Furthermore, scientists know that belief in creation also involves belief in the Bible, for creation of matter and life by an omnipotent God from His own power is found only in the Hebrew scriptures.

 

Microscopic life

Take a sample of stagnant water and look at it through a microscope. A whole new world opens up as many different types of single-celled organisms become visible. Here is what one scientist had to say about one of them:

“Over the years, thousands of papers have been published on the bacterial flagellum. Not one scientist has ever published a model to account for the gradual evolution of this extraordinary molecular machine…In effect, the theory of Darwinian molecular evolution has not published and so it should perish.”2

Another fact overlooked by evolutionary thinkers is that, whereas single-celled creatures are numerous in the world around us, there are none with two, four or even 16 cells. Thus there is no evolutionary sequence from single-celled to multi-celled creatures.3

Once all the little pieces of evidence from nature are put together many people exclaim, “God must be!” Anyone who does not exclaim this is blinded by evolutionary oversimplification of complex processes. The apostle Paul put it this way,

“For the invisible things of Him from the creation of the world are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even His eternal power and Godhead; so that they are without excuse” (Rom. 1:20).

Once that impression has been made on the human mind, a firm foundation has been laid upon which to build, for

“he that cometh to God must believe that He is and that He is a rewarder of them that diligently seek Him” (Heb. 11:6).

It is the purpose of this chapter to show by virtue of design that God “is”, and that design in creation is important in proving the Bible true.

We’ll come back to visible treasures soon. But in order to find hidden treasure we must go to a gem field and dig, sift, wash and examine until that precious stone is found. Take a close look at the gem. Could a human make it? Of course not! It takes power to make matter – enormous amounts of it. There is a huge gap between a vacuum and matter. If there is one thing man has learnt from this atomic age it is this – there is an enormous amount of pent-up energy in matter. Who put it there? Obviously, someone equal to, no, greater than the energy in the matter found throughout the universe!

garnet1Faceted Garnets

Examining the gemstone in the light of the sun, it’s easy for humans, as the most intelligent of God’s creation, to appreciate the difference between a gem and an ordinary stone. An ape or some other animal would have no such appreciation. Put those gemstones in water and tumble them for a while, then notice the difference after the rough edges have been worn off.

Facet them so they reflect the light of the sun and they’re better still. The volume and variety of hidden gems across the world is truly amazing.

Godless people would have us believe that these gems happened by chance events, but their theories do not explain the power necessary to produce matter. Bible believers can attest that the Bible is constructed in the same way, and there are as many treasures beneath the surface as there are plainly visible on the surface. Regarding these hidden treasures, the wise man Solomon put it this way:

“It is the glory of God to conceal a thing; but the honour of kings is to search out a matter” (Prov. 25:2).

 

The universe

Take a telescope and examine the heavens. Design of the highest magnitude is there for all to see. Many a person, even without telescope in hand, has been compelled to recite along with King David,

“When I consider thy heavens, the work of thy fingers, the moon and the stars which thou hast ordained, what is man that thou art mindful of him?” (Psa. 8:3).

Only enormous power can account for the stars. God’s name in Hebrew is El and it means power.

Sir Isaac Newton developed a very simple scientific proof for the creation of the universe. He reasoned:

“Hot bodies always warm cold bodies until they reach the same temperature. For example, if hot and cold water are mixed together, warm water is the result but it is impossible to separate them into their hot and cold parts again. The universe contains both hot and cold bodies that have not had time to reach the warm state. It follows therefore that such a state could not have existed forever. The universe must have been created. Also, it’s quite impossible that a primordial gas could have produced both hot and cold bodies for the same reason that warm water cannot be separated into the original hot and cold parts. Therefore the universe cannot be explained in scientific terms and must have been created.”4

Believers such as Newton realize that God works His wonders by miracles because He is all-powerful. Materialistic (i.e. non-Bible believing) scientists say, “I have never observed any miracles; therefore I do not believe such things.” The American philosopher George Santayana (1863–1952) represents this unbelief in his words: “Miracles are propitious accidents, the natural causes of which are too complicated to be readily understood.”

It should be noted, however, that “accidents” have invariably produced changes for the worse, not favourable changes as Santayana and other materialists would have us believe. To them, miracles are a stumbling block but they want the public to believe more than miracles; they want them to believe the impossible.

Sir Isaac Newton’s brilliant reasoning about the universe was the forerunner to the law of entropy, a scientific and engineering term meaning that orderly arrangements tend to become disorderly.

To give a very simple example—a well-tended garden is an orderly arrangement. Leave it alone for a while and it becomes disorderly.  The law of entropy applying here and generally is that disorder increases naturally.  If disorder increases naturally, then order only increases with the application of effort or energy.

Logically, order in the universe can only increase supernaturally!  The universe is orderly.  Our solar system is orderly.  Earth systems are orderly. The only explanation for such order is creation, as outlined in Genesis in God’s holy word the Bible.

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Also, our sun and the other stars of the universe are losing energy and mass at millions of tonnes per second.  The fact is they can’t have been doing this forever.  Someone must have created them and given them their original mass, from which they have been decreasing ever since.  Who is this “someone”?  The Bible has the answer: God

“made the stars also” (Gen. 1:16).

The solar system: Planet earth Coming back down to earth, design is to be found in the location of planet earth in the solar system. Earth is at the right distance from the sun and rotates on its axis, so it is not too hot and not too cold. In other words, average temperature is just right for life to survive. All the other planets are either too hot, too cold or have no atmosphere.

The Bible says,

“He hangeth the earth upon nothing” (Job 26:7)

,so, long before man discovered the law of gravity, the Bible was correct.

Materialistic thinkers also need to explain the existence of radioactive substances, which cannot have been decomposing forever. Who gave them their original mass?

Read man’s literature on the subject and take note of his breathtaking arrogance in statements such as this, (speaking of planet earth): “It alone supports life, and more than anything else, this seems to be down to chance. When the cosmic dice were thrown, our planet came out with a double six.”5

The chances were much less than that, as we shall soon see. Most scientists also cheerfully assure us that with an infinite amount of time, disorderly arrangements can become orderly by natural means, that is, the impossible can happen! They would have us believe that given enough time, somewhere a kettle of water will freeze on a hot plate, or somewhere, sometime, a prawn will learn to whistle.

Let us now consider some of the many cycles in nature that come under the general heading of earth cycles.

 

Oxygen cycle

Consider the two kingdoms of life, plants and animals. There is amazing design there as well. Animals need oxygen to breathe and plants provide it. Plants need carbon dioxide to breathe and animals provide it. Most of earth’s oxygen comes from huge quantities of free-floating sea algae and other sea plants. Land plants supply the rest.5 (See chemical equation in Carbon section below.) Is that chance or design? It is an amazingly balanced earth cycle only a Creator-God could oversee. It has been self-sustaining for 6,000 years. Only recently has man begun to upset the balance, putting too much carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.

 

Carbon cycle

A basic building block of all animals and plants is carbon. How would humans arrange for them to get it? Would they put it in the soil? Would they put it in the water? Those seem like logical places to us humans, however, a far higher intelligence than ours took care of it long ago—6000 years ago at creation. The only possible place for the carbon to be placed was in the air in the form of carbon dioxide. Plants breathe it in through their leaves and change it into carbon compounds by the complex process of photosynthesis—so complex, man cannot imitate it.

A chemist would show photosynthesis by this chemical equation: 6CO2 + 6H2O + light energy = C6H12O6 (glucose) + 6O2.

Most of us never use chemical equations, but simply expressed, the equation means: 6 molecules of carbon dioxide + 6 molecules of water, produce one molecule of sugar + 6 molecules of oxygen.

This process can only take place because of chlorophyll in plants. To say that this brilliant chemistry happened by accident is nonsense.

Animals obtain carbon compounds from the plants by eating them. Carbon is the ideal building block for animal and plant life because of its ability to bond with other elements, but all the elements have their place in the grand design of the great Creator.

Ninety years ago it was thought that only 10 of the 90 naturally occurring elements were necessary for life but now it is known that at least 20 are needed, including oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, fluorine, sodium, potassium, iron, magnesium, zinc, selenium, vanadium, molybdenum, copper, germanium, lithium, strontium, iodine, phosphorus and cobalt.

Using the laws of chance and probability the mathematical chances of selecting the correct element each time from the ninety elements is not as simple as throwing a double six. It actually works out to one in billions. Is this chance or design?

The Bible claims that God made man from

“the dust of the ground” (Gen. 2:7),

so not only is there design in the selection of the required elements, but the Bible is scientifically correct again. These 20 necessary elements are called trace elements and they are found in the food we eat. Consider just iodine for example, and we learn that it is a vital trace element which enables cells to regulate their rate of functioning. Iodine comes to us via the food chains and is picked up by the thyroid gland, but it is extremely scarce in the environment. It occurs at the rate of just one gram per 50 tonnes of seawater.

Non-believers need to answer this: “Who programmed the thyroid to pick up essential iodine?” It had to be present in the very first humans or their body cells would not have been able to regulate their rate of functioning and they soon would have died. In fact their complete digestive systems had to be functioning from day one or our first parents would soon have perished.4

The only plausible explanation of human life is that found in Genesis:

“Male and female created he them,” (Gen. 1:27),

a factual, scientific statement endorsed by Moses and Jesus.

 

Nitrogen cycle

The air we breathe consists mainly of the gas nitrogen, which dilutes the oxygen we need for life. Nitrogen is important for the production of our body’s protein, but we don’t get it directly from the air. It comes to us via the nitrogen cycle: but, unlike carbon, it comes from the ground and water. Plants take in salts containing nitrogen through their roots, combining it with other chemicals to produce protein foods. Nitrogen is so important to plant growth and development, scientists describe it as the cornerstone of plant growth. Animals take in these plant foods to build protein in their own bodies.

The cycle continues as animal waste, decaying plants, animals and bacteria in the soil provide the soil with nitrogen salts that plants can absorb, thus completing the cycle.

A few plants such as beans and peas are able to take nitrogen directly from the air because bacteria in swellings in their roots are able to break down the nitrogen atom to make protein directly, but this is only a small part of the nitrogen cycle.

Knowing that protein is such an essential part of life, especially in DNA, it needed to be in the overall design process from the beginning. Furthermore, the DNA helix in each cell requires twenty different proteins for its structure. These specific proteins can only be produced under the direction of the information in the DNA; therefore the whole complex system must have been formed complete from the beginning of life.3

 

Water cycle

The Bible is not a science textbook, but nowhere does it state anything that opposes true science. The wise man Solomon stated,

“All the rivers flow into the sea, yet the sea is not full” (Eccl. 1:7).

The prophet Jeremiah wrote,

“He hath established the world by His wisdom…and He causeth the vapours to ascend from the ends of the earth” (Jer. 51:15–16).

Amos wrote,

“Seek him… that calleth for the waters of the sea and poureth them out upon the face of the earth: The Lord is His name” (Amos 5:8).

Their testimony is scientifically correct because the water cycle was put in place by God at creation. The cycle begins when energy from the sun causes water to evaporate. During evaporation, water becomes water vapour, which ascends into the atmosphere, forming clouds. As the water vapour rises it cools, condenses around tiny specks of salt, dust or smoke in the air, and forms droplets of water. When the droplets become heavy enough they fall to the earth. That is called precipitation—rain, snow or hail. High in the mountains where precipitation is greatest it produces small streams that join to form mighty rivers. These rivers ultimately reach the sea where water evaporates and the cycle continues.

Considering that all life depends on fresh water, this cycle is further evidence of design. When we also learn that just three per cent of the earth’s water is fresh and most of that is locked up in ice and snow, mainly at the poles, the essential nature of the water cycle is further emphasized. Also, an estimated 30 per cent of fresh water is underground, so a mere 0.3 per cent is available for our use in rivers and lakes.5

We have considered four earth cycles, but others are necessary to provide the other chemicals needful for life.

 

Creation and life systems

Anyone who has ever made anything that works knows that it is not a simple matter. It requires materials from which to make the object, energy to put them together and intelligence in the planning, making and assembly stages. The materials are not things we can create ourselves, so we have to use things from our environment. That is because the Law of Conservation of Matter states: “Matter cannot be created or destroyed.”

Energy is not something we naturally possess either. It too has to come from the environment in the form of the food we eat, which is converted to the muscles and organs of our bodies, allowing us to use the energy. This time the Law of Conservation of Energy applies: “Energy cannot be created or destroyed.”

Even something as simple as a model boat requires intelligence to build. It requires intelligence in the planning stage by way of drawings, etc. It requires intelligence in the construction stage by way of measuring, cutting, fitting and finishing. Once the parts have been drawn up and prepared, will they assemble themselves? No: they need both energy and intelligence for them to be assembled properly. Nothing ever yet assembled itself together. The reason for this was first expressed by Sir Isaac Newton in his first Law of Motion, which states in part:

“An object that is not moving will not move until a force acts on it.”

There are no exceptions to this law apart from those recorded in God’s word, the Bible. These are called miracles and in these cases the power of God is the force acting upon the object. Materialistic scientists don’t believe in miracles because that would involve belief in a Creator, and that is something they are not prepared to do.

If such is the case with something as simple as a model boat, how much more so with something as complex as any one of the many life forms around us, especially the human species.

Most scientists would have us believe that not only simple creatures but complex ones as well came into being by chance, that is, the matter and energy just happened and the intelligence to put their various parts together just happened by chance as well.

Matter and energy require great power. No other book but the Bible explains clearly where these fundamental entities came from, for example: Jeremiah 51:15:

“He hath made the earth by His power; He hath established the world by His wisdom and hath stretched out the heavens by His understanding.”

Romans 1:20:

“Ever since the creation of the world His eternal power and divine nature, invisible though they are, have been understood and seen through the things He has made. So they are without excuse.”

(New RSV).

No ancient stories of creation come anywhere near the simplicity, accuracy and common sense of that outlined in the Bible. That God is the source of all matter and energy is abundantly clear from His own revelation, the Bible. God has given us all the information necessary to come to the right conclusions about the wonders around us, but if we choose to reject it, God correctly labels us as

“fools” (Psa. 14:1).

Take the time to research the human digestive system and any reasonable person will appreciate magnificent design at each and every step. Quite often, evolutionary writers of articles on these systems slip in the word “design” accidentally, e.g. “The problem has been solved with a beautifully simple piece of design.”5

Seldom will such complex processes be described in evolutionary terms and, even if they are, scant detail of their development is given.

Then, when we realize that the digestive system is but one of many systems —skeletal, muscular, respiratory, circulatory, reproductive, sensory, and nervous systems, indeed all systems that make up a complete human body, the mind is filled with wonder at the creative genius that designed and made it. David expressed it so very well: “I am fearfully and wonderfully made” (Psa. 139:14).

 

Information science

Before closing this chapter, consideration should be given to the most recent proof of design in creation—information science.

An author on the subject is Professor Werner Gitt, a lecturer in science at Hanover University, Germany. Professor Gitt states:

“The philosophy that life and its origin are purely natural phenomena now dominates biological science…But science should be subservient to truth not folly.”6

Professor Gitt’s proof of creation should do as much to disprove the theory of evolution as Louis Pasteur’s discoveries disproved the fallacy of spontaneous generation. Until Pasteur, it was generally believed that life could arise spontaneously from non-life. The professor observes that many scientists regard information as the third fundamental entity alongside matter and energy. He then sets forth 30 laws of nature that hold for information, a few of which are:

  • Information is a non-material (mental) entity. It is not a property of (inanimate) matter.
  • Information only arises through an intentional act.
  • A code is essential for establishing information (e.g. Morse code, brail, hieroglyphics, human languages, shorthand, computer languages, etc.).
  • Traced backwards along a train of transmission, every piece of information leads to a mental source, i.e. the mind of the sender.
  • There is no known natural law through which matter can give rise to information.

Professor Gitt makes it known that he has presented his natural laws to university audiences in Germany and abroad, but no researcher has ever mentioned a single rebuttal to his 30 laws of nature. They must therefore be regarded as natural laws, along with Newton’s laws of motion and gravity for example, as they are universally valid.

He then proceeds to show that the ultimate code-storing device is the DNA of every living thing, whether plant or animal. DNA is the most exquisite example of information storage because of its extreme miniaturization and its ability to perform the very basis of life—replication of itself. Each DNA fibre is just two millionths of a millimetre thick and can only be seen by the most powerful electron microscopes. When the DNA replicates—every time a cell divides in two—the DNA strand unwinds and a complementary strand is constructed on each separate one until there are two new double strands identical to the original. The process of cell division lasts 20–80 minutes, during which the entire molecular library is copied correctly. To give some idea of the incredible amount of information in such a small fibre, Prof. Gitt uses the term “packing density” of the information. He first gives us an example of packing density which is physically possible i.e. placing the whole Bible from Genesis to Revelation on a slide of microfilm 33 mm by 32 mm. He then makes this staggering comparison:

If it were possible to place the information contained in a DNA molecule on the same size slide of microfilm, there would be the equivalent of 2.77 million rows of Bibles and 2.77 million columns of entire Bibles on the slide, i.e. 7.7 million times as much information.

But it is not physically possible for humans to perform such miniaturization. The other big difference between the two methods of storage is that DNA can transfer its information unchanged to other cells by the life-process of division, or replication. Our minds become overloaded contemplating this marvel of life alone; but our Creator not only thought it out—He did it.

Dr. Gitt shows that all the marvels of nature, from the webs of spiders to the wing scales of butterflies, come from controlling programs with all the required information built in. The development of the human embryo is a most remarkable example of information guiding its growth, according to a set plan. From the fertilized egg, information in the DNA provides the program for the development of the new person from the womb to adulthood. The only information the person lacks is how to behave morally; but God has not left us without any moral guidance at all. He has revealed it through His word the Bible. Without this guidance from God’s laws, humans can behave worse than beasts of the field. Some of this moral teaching from God forms chapter seven of this book.

That information is a third entity alongside matter and energy is well proven by Dr. Gitt. Only God has the power to combine all three to produce life and the conditions to sustain it. God has the power to produce matter; He has the power to bring the required elements of matter together, for matter cannot move by itself; He has the power to codify and miniaturize the immense amount of information required for all forms of life. It is miraculous power and was used at creation, as outlined in Genesis. On completion, God viewed His creation and declared it to be “very good” (Gen. 1:31).

Should we now expect scientists everywhere to reject evolution because of these new findings? No. Some will resort to their tired old response, “We can’t see God therefore we don’t believe in Him.” Do they refuse to believe in electricity because it can’t be seen, only its effects?

This chapter has shown the effects of God’s creative power are everywhere to be seen, but only honest people will admit it. Added to the evidence we have already produced—the information in every living cell—God has given us His word, so we are not left without knowledge of God and His plan and purpose at all. We cannot see God (John 1:18), but to deny His existence and maintain the folly of evolution is to have no hope, for God also outlines to us in the Bible information on a way of extending the life He has given us into immortality. This life-changing information is examined briefly after chapter 7, in the conclusion.

We’ll close this chapter on design by comparing Charles Darwin’s doubts about the evolution of the eye with what the Bible has to say about its creation.

From Darwin’s book, On the Origin of Species:

“To suppose that the eye, with all its inimitable contrivances for adjusting the focus to different distances, for admitting different amounts of light and for the correction of spherical and chromatic aberration, could have been formed by natural selection, seems, I freely confess, absurd in the highest possible degree.”

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In contrast, the Bible makes this simple, clear statement:

“The hearing ear and the seeing eye—the Lord hath made even both of them” (Prov. 20:12).

Design in creation is a very good reason to believe the Bible.